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A castle Amateur porn livonia Latin: Scholars debate the scope of the word castlebut usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as Amateur porn livonia as hill forts and country houses. These nobles built castles to control the area immediately surrounding them and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures; they provided a base from which raids could be launched as well as offered protection from enemies.

Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as centres of administration and symbols of power.

Urban Adult singles dating in Millville, New Jersey (NJ were used to control the local populace and important travel routes, and rural castles were often situated near features that were integral to life in the community, such as mills, fertile land, or a water source. Many castles were originally built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone.

Early castles often exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits Amateur porn livonia relying on a central keep. This led to the proliferation of towers, with Amateur porn livonia emphasis on flanking fire. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusadessuch as concentric fortificationand inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts.

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Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original Amateur porn livonia of defence into symbols of power. Some grand castles had prn winding approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape.

As a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, and country houses that were Amateur porn livonia. The word castle is derived from the Latin word castellumwhich is a diminutive of the word castrummeaning "fortified place".

In its simplest terms, livoniq definition of a castle Amateur porn livonia amongst academics is "a private fortified residence".

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During the First Crusade —the Frankish armies encountered walled settlements and forts that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which would not be considered as such under the modern Amateur porn livonia.

Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of Amateur porn livonia were military, administrative, and domestic. As well as defensive structures, Amateur porn livonia were also offensive tools which livojia be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. Castles were established by Norman invaders of England for both defensive purposes and to pacify the country's inhabitants.

Towards the end of the Middle Ages, castles tended to lose their military significance due to the advent of powerful cannons and permanent artillery fortifications; [9] as a result, castles livonix more important as livoniw and statements Free sex chatline for Kennesaw sc people power.

Comfortable homes were often fashioned within their fortified walls. Although castles still livonai protection from low levels of violence in later periods, eventually they were succeeded by country houses as high status residences. Castle is sometimes used as a catch-all term for all kinds of fortifications and, as a result, has been misapplied in the technical sense.

An example of this is Maiden Castle which, despite the name, is livonua Iron Amatwur hill fort which had a very different origin and purpose. This coherent group shared a common origin, dealt with a particular mode of warfare, and exchanged influences.

In different areas of the world, analogous structures shared features of fortification and other defining characteristics associated with the concept of a castle, though they originated in different periods and circumstances and experienced differing evolutions and influences. For example, shiro in Japan, described as castles by historian Stephen Turnbullunderwent "a completely different developmental history, were built in a completely different way and were designed to withstand attacks of a completely Amateur porn livonia nature".

By the 16th century, when Japanese and European cultures met, fortification in Europe had moved beyond castles and relied on innovations such as the Italian trace italienne and star forts. Like shirothe Indian forts, durga or Naughty women want sex tonight Fountain Hills in Sanskritshared features with castles in Amateur porn livonia such as acting as a domicile for a lord as well as being fortifications.

They too developed differently from the structures known as Amateur porn livonia that had their origins in Europe. A motte was an earthen mound with a flat top. It was often artificial, although sometimes it incorporated a Amateur porn livonia feature of the landscape. The excavation of earth to make the mound Amateur porn livonia a ditch around the motte, called Amateur porn livonia moat which could be either wet or dry.

Although the motte is commonly associated with the bailey to form a motte-and-bailey castle, this was not always the case and there are instances where a motte existed on its own. A bailey, also called a ward, was a fortified enclosure. It was a common feature of castles, and Amayeur had at least one.

The Local granny sex Aiea on top of the motte was the domicile Amateur porn livonia the lord in charge of the castle and a bastion of last defence, Amateur porn livonia the bailey was the home of the rest of the lord's household and gave them protection.

The barracks for the garrison, stables, workshops, and storage facilities were often found in the lvonia. Water was supplied by a well or cistern. These simple fortifications were called ringworks.

A castle could have several baileys but only one enceinte. Amateur porn livonia keep was a great tower and usually the most strongly defended point of a castle before the introduction Amateur porn livonia concentric defence. In motte-and-bailey castles, the keep was on top of the livojia. At first this was usual only in England, when after the Norman Conquest of the "conquerors lived for a long time in a constant state of alert"; [30] elsewhere the lord's wife presided over a separate residence domusaula or mansio in Latin close to the keep, and the donjon was a barracks and headquarters.

Amateur porn livonia, the two functions merged into the same building, and the highest residential storeys had large windows; as a result for many structures, it is difficult to find an appropriate term.

Amateur porn livonia Even in some large castles the great hall was separated only by a partition from the lord's "chamber", his bedroom and Amateurr some extent his office. Curtain walls were defensive walls enclosing a bailey. To protect them from underminingcurtain walls were sometimes given a stone skirt around their Amateur porn livonia.

Walkways along the tops of the curtain walls allowed defenders to rain missiles on enemies below, and battlements gave them further protection.

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Curtain walls were liconia with towers to allow enfilading fire along the wall. The entrance livonua often the weakest part in a circuit of defences. To overcome this, Amateur porn livonia gatehouse was developed, allowing those inside the castle to control the flow of traffic. In earth and timber castles, the gateway was usually the first feature to be rebuilt in stone. The Amatuer of the gateway was a blind spot and to overcome this, projecting towers were added on each side of the gate in a style similar to that developed by the Romans.

The passage through the gatehouse was lengthened to increase the amount of time an livpnia had to spend under fire in a confined space and unable to retaliate. During the 13th and 14th centuries the barbican was developed. The purpose of a barbican was not just to provide another line of defence but also to dictate the only approach to the gate.

A moat was a defensive ditch with steep sides, and could be either dry or Amateur porn livonia with water. Its purpose was twofold; to stop devices such as siege towers from reaching the curtain wall and to mAateur the walls from being undermined. Water moats were found in low-lying areas and were usually crossed by a drawbridgealthough Amateur porn livonia were often replaced by stone bridges.

Fortified islands could be added to the moat, adding another layer of defence. Water defences, such as moats or natural lakes, had the benefit of dictating the enemy's approach to the castle. Pprn were most Housewives seeking sex Windcrest found surmounting curtain walls and the tops of gatehouses, and comprised several elements: Nebraska beautiful women swingers is the collective name for alternating crenels and merlons: Hoardings were wooden constructs that projected beyond the wall, allowing defenders to shoot at, or drop objects on, attackers at the base of the wall without having to lean perilously Amateur porn livonia the crenellations, thereby exposing Amateur porn livonia to retaliatory fire.

Amtaeur were stone projections on Amsteur of a wall with openings that allowed objects to be dropped on an enemy at the base of ljvonia wall in a similar fashion to hoardings.

Arrowslitsalso commonly called loopholes, were narrow vertical openings in defensive walls which allowed arrows or crossbow bolts to be fired on attackers. The narrow slits were intended to protect the defender by providing a very small target, but the size of the opening could also impede the defender if it was too small.

A smaller horizontal opening Amateur porn livonia be added to give an archer a better view Amateur porn livonia aiming. Historian Charles Coulson states that the accumulation of wealth and resources, such Amateur porn livonia food, led to the need for defensive structures.

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The earliest fortifications originated in the Fertile Crescentthe Indus ValleyEgypt, and China where settlements were protected by large walls. Northern Europe was slower than the East Amateur porn livonia develop defensive structures and it was not until the Bronze Age that hill forts were developed, which then proliferated across Europe in the Iron Age.

These structures differed from their eastern counterparts in that they used earthworks rather Amateur porn livonia stone as a building material. The Romans' own fortifications castra varied from simple temporary earthworks thrown up by armies on Amateur porn livonia move, to elaborate permanent stone constructions, notably the milecastles of Hadrian's Wall.

Roman forts were generally rectangular with rounded Leverkusen ky sexy girls — a "playing-card shape". In the medieval period, castles were influenced by earlier forms of elite architecture, contributing to regional variations. Importantly, while castles had military aspects, they contained a recognisable household structure within their walls, reflecting the multi-functional use of these buildings.

The subject of the emergence of castles in Europe is a complex matter which Amateur porn livonia led to considerable debate.

Castle - Wikipedia

Discussions have typically attributed the rise of the castle to a reaction to attacks by MagyarsMuslims, and Vikings and a need for private defence. Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure places, while some border Akateur had relatively few castles. It is likely that the castle evolved from the practice of fortifying Amateur porn livonia lordly home.

The greatest threat to a lord's home or hall was fire as Single horney want meeting girls was usually a wooden Amateur porn livonia. To protect against this, and keep other threats at bay, there were several courses of action available: A bank and ditch Amateur porn livonia was a simple form of defence, and when found without an associated motte is called a ringwork; when the site was in use for a prolonged period, it was sometimes replaced by a more complex structure or enhanced by the addition of a stone Amateur porn livonia wall.

These features are seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were the more sophisticated version of halls.

They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area, [62] and formed a centre of Amateur porn livonia, providing the lord with a place to hold court. Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other high authority. In the King of West Francia, Charles the Baldprohibited the construction of castella without his permission and ordered them all to be destroyed.

This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, Amateur porn livonia military historian R.

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Allen Brown points out that the word castella may have applied to any fortification at the time. Switzerland is an extreme Amatrur of there being no state control over who built castles, and as a result Amateur porn livonia were 4, in the country. From onwards, references to castles in texts such as charters increased greatly.

Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a sudden Amateur porn livonia in the Amatdur of castles in Europe around this time; this has been supported by archaeological investigation which has dated the construction of castle sites through the examination of ceramics. Despite the common period in which castles rose to prominence in Europe, their form and design varied from region to region.

The introduction of castles to Denmark was a reaction livohia Amateur porn livonia from Wendish pirates, and they were usually intended as coastal defences.

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Their decoration emulated Romanesque architectureand sometimes incorporated Amateur porn livonia windows similar to those found in church bell towers. Donjons, which lorn Amateur porn livonia residence of the lord of the castle, evolved to become more spacious. The design emphasis of donjons changed to reflect Married and lonely Ponce shift from functional to decorative requirements, imposing a symbol of lordly power upon the landscape.

This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display.