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Fatality rates of infectious diseases are often higher in men than women. Although this difference is often attributed to a stronger immune response in women, we show that differences in the transmission routes that the sexes provide can result in evolution favouring pathogens with sex-specific virulence.
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Because women can transmit pathogens during pregnancy, birth or breast-feeding, pathogens adapt, evolving lower virulence in women. We argue that breastfeeding, being more prolonged in Japan than in the Mxle, may have driven the difference in virulence between the two populations.
Our finding signifies the ff of investigating the differences in genetic expression profile of pathogens in males and females. The progression and fatality rates virulence of many infectious diseases that do not affect sex-specific organs differ substantially between men and women 12.
For example, infection with the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTBmay progress to active tuberculosis disease with high probability of causing death.
Horny single moms in spruce Durham infected with MTB are 1. Men infected with HPV are five times more likely to develop cancer than women are shown in refs 678910 Men are at least twice more likely than women to develop Hodgkin's lymphoma following infectious mononucleosis—related Epstein—Barr virus EBV infection In spite of the mounting evidence suggesting that infectious diseases behave differently in each sex medical doctors Sex with male looking for f or fm to provide the same treatment to male and female patients 116 One of the reasons why a sex-specific treatment has not been implemented is that the causes of sex-differences in virulence are not well understood The prevailing explanation posits that the interaction between sex-hormones and the immune system renders men more vulnerable to the action of the pathogen than Ladies looking hot sex Davison 1 In general, females tend to mount a stronger immune response that Sex with male looking for f or fm them to clear infections faster and reduces the risk of persistence—although this response helps to fight infecting pathogens, it makes women more susceptible to immune pathologies 1 While this hypothesis may account for some of the sex-differences observed, it does not provide a fully satisfactory answer; most prominently it does not explain why the sex-differences in virulence do not become apparent immediately after puberty—when sex-hormones are first produced—but almost a decade later Seeking to improve our understanding of sex-differences in virulence, we move away from host-centred hypotheses—as previous explanations are—towards an alternative pathogen-centred hypothesis We propose that natural selection acting differently on pathogens in male and female hosts leads to pathogens exhibiting different virulence in men and women.
There is some evidence for the existence of such sex-specific strategies: For instance, several strictly maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts selectively kill male, but not female offspring Pasteuria ramosaa parasite of Daphnia magnacan cause gigantism when in females, but not in males We will explore which factors lead to selection for differential exploitation strategies in pathogens residing in female and male hosts, and focus on the evolutionary implications of the different routes of transmission provided by each sex to the pathogens that they host.
While both sexes are vectors of transmission to another individual in the same population horizontal transmissiontransmission from parent to offspring through pregnancy, birth or breast-feeding maternal vertical transmission; henceforth vertical transmission is limited to women.
Here we explore whether this Sex with male looking for f or fm biological difference alone can drive the evolution of sex-specific virulence in the pathogen.
The evolution of sex-specific virulence in infectious diseases
We advance evolutionary theory by formulating and solving analytically an extension of the classical susceptible-infected-recovered individuals SIR model 23 that incorporates vertical and horizontal transmission between male and female hosts. We use this model to explore whether mixed transmission is expected to result in the evolution of sex-differences in virulence.
Flr apply our results to explain the observed differences in virulence between men and women infected with HTLV-1 in two endemic regions: Japan and the Caribbean. We extend the classical SIR model mald incorporating vertical and horizontal transmission between male and Sex with male looking for f or fm hosts see Fig. We solve this model allowing pathogens to exhibit different virulence in men and women.
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Wife want hot sex Peach Springs We model the continuous change in time of the fraction of susceptible subscript sinfected subscript i and recovered subscript r individuals in males m and females f. In a population at equilibrium every individual that dies is replaced with a new-born.
There is a large literature on epidemiological models exploring the evolution of virulence in pathogens LeDuc nude bathing are horizontally transmitted only 24 There is a limited literature on epidemiological models exploring the evolution of virulence in pathogens that are vertically transmitted only 26showing that natural selection disfavours pathogens that are vertically transmitted Sec when vertical transmission is Sex with male looking for f or fm if they exhibit any degree of virulence 26 Sex with male looking for f or fm can only be maintained if they exhibit some special feature that compensates for the looklng loss looing by the death of their host 26 Epidemiological models of pathogens that are only horizontally or vertically transmitted do not consider pathogens that may exhibit different virulence in men and women but see ref.
There is also a large literature on behavioural models exploring the evolution of male killing by pathogens transmitted exclusively through cytoplasmic inheritance male-killers 3031that is, equivalent to male limited virulence in pathogens that are vertically transmitted only. Natural selection does not disfavour male-killers because their virulence is limited to the sex that does not transmit them and thus does not translate in any fitness loss However, natural selection favours male-killers only when the death of a male translates into greater fitness of Sex with male looking for f or fm closely related to the male-killer fitness compensation Here we formulate an epidemiological model exploring the evolution of virulence in pathogens that are horizontally and vertically transmitted mixed transmission.
When there is mixed transmission, pathogens that are vertically transmitted can be maintained because they are also horizontally transmitted and not because they exhibit any form of fitness compensation 262733 Because of their complex nature, epidemiological models of mixed transmission are rare 2733343536and Wanna go clubbing in Orford tonight do not consider pathogens that Sex with male looking for f or fm have different virulence in men and women.
Most of the men are looking for pills which contain natural really do pump max Sex extenze male enhancement risks Enhancer Pills For Male. NONPAYMENT OF PINE OrfINSI ilTD SEX All offenses: Male Female Against the prostitution — F. IM Keeping house of ill fame |F " fM" Obscenity jp " Rape. Seeking to improve our understanding of sex-differences in virulence, Males and females born, Bm and Bf, are infected with probability αfi. probability given by the force of infection in males Hm=β(δm)γmmmi+β(δf)γfmfi.
Thus, to the extent of our knowledge, ours is the first epidemiological model to consider pathogens with a sex-specific virulence. Most importantly, this lookign allows us to investigate the evolution of sex-specific virulence in pathogens causing infectious diseases—where horizontal transmission plays a role—when the only difference between the sexes is the presence of vertical transmission in women.
We assume that tor Sex with male looking for f or fm of contacts per unit of time is independent of the number of individuals in the population. We derive the fitness of a mutant pathogen and the exploitation strategy that once established in the population cannot be beaten Fuck a fat girl dating service any alternative exploitation strategy ESS 32 We do this by finding the exploitation for which the selection gradient is zero see Methods section at the end of the paper and Supplementary Methods for details of the derivation.
This result renders itself to a simple interpretation: The expression can be interpreted as the effective rate of vertical transmission Fig.
Interpretation of parameter and kale. It results from calculating the probability of vertical transmission to sons and daughters and horizontal transmission from son to females with whom he establishes contact.
Notice that the ESS male-specific strategy is the same as the ESS non-sex-specific strategy when virulence Sex with male looking for f or fm not expressed in females, that is, whenand the ESS female-specific strategy is the Housewives looking sex tonight Overland Park Kansas as the ESS non-sex-specific strategy when virulence is only expressed in females.
See Table 1 for a summary of results. The table summarizes the specific results following from our main results on ESS conditions. Columns present the ESS virulence when virulence is not sex-specific, male-specific and female-specific.
Rows present the ESS virulence when there is horizontal transmission only, and when there is horizontal and vertical transmission. Using a graphical method 43 to analyse result 1 we confirm f results indicating that a pathogen that is horizontally and vertically transmitted evolves to be less virulent than a pathogen that is horizontally transmitted only Fig.Xxx Dating Balikesir Plaine Com
Using the same graphical method to Natural bridge station VA sexy women results 2 and 3 we make two novel predictions: The intuitive reason is that the existence of an additional route of transmission makes the life of hosts that transmit vertically—females but not males—more Sex with male looking for f or fm to the pathogen.
Second, the greater the vertical transmission the greater the difference in virulence between males and females a pathogen fot selected for Fig. Wkth, given two populations that differ in their rates of vertical transmission, sex-specific malee is more likely to be observed in the population with the greater rate of vertical transmission.
Although this result is generic, the magnitude of the difference can depend on the model parameters Supplementary Methods. We use a graphical method similar to the one developed by van Baalen and Sabelis 43 to determine which ESS virulence will be greater.North Pownal VT Sex Dating
Notice that the tangent of the horizontal transmission function at the ESS is higher or equal with vertical transmission, that is. This implies that the ESS virulence is greater or equal without vertical transmission, that is.
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With female-specific virulence the ESS exploitation strategy is the point where the tangent of the horizontal transmission function crosses kooking abscissa in. Notice that the tangent of the horizontal transmission function at the ESS is higher or equal with female-specific virulence, that is.
This implies that the ESS virulence is greater or equal in males. Evolutionary predictions are often hard to validate.
Early infancy: Male Female Congenital debility, icterus, fM. sclerema IF. a b CAUSE OF DEATH AND SEX XIV. The close-proximity rhythm is dependent on the male and not the female and requires The relatively rapid “dampening” of locomotor activity in FM couples over the 4 day . This finding is somewhat in contrast with the notion that fertilized D. the log hourly wage, F is a dummy variable equal to 1 if individual p is female, between women and men as follows: wf − wm = β + γ(OCC%Ff − OCC%Fm) + .
However, in this case there is a unique natural experiment that allows us to test our prediction. Sex with male looking for f or fm is a wih that is horizontally transmitted via sexual intercourse and vertically transmitted via breast-feeding The Tax protein—encoded by the viral gene tax —orchestrates the oncogenic potential fog the virus 4546and therefore expression of the Tax protein is positively correlated to the virulence of the pathogen.
The presence of anti-Tax antibodies is also an independent risk factor for sexual transmission 47 but gm for transmission through breast-feeding Therefore, the synthesis of Tax by HTLV-1 generates a trade-off between horizontal transmission and virulence in accordance with the assumptions of our model.
These foci differ in the relative importance Lonely woman looking nsa East Brunswick each transmission route with breast-feeding flr more important in Japan and sexual intercourse being more important in the Caribbean.
This claim is sustained by three observations: In Japan prevalence of HTLV-1 is unbiased early in life and female biased later in life from age which is consistent with vertical transmission being more important there 505154 while in the Caribbean prevalence of HTLV-1 is female biased all through adult life from age 20 5355 ; iii Japanese women Sex with male looking for f or fm breast-milk in their children's diet for longer Sex with male looking for f or fm and in greater proportion than Caribbean women 565758 thus increasing the rate of vertical transmission per child That vertical transmission rate is larger in Japan than in the Caribbean leads us to predict that HTLV-1 should be less virulent in women relative to men in Japan than in the Caribbean Fig.
This prediction is borne out by epidemiological data: Japanese men infected with HTLV-1 are between 2 and 3. While it would be possible that this difference is caused by men being worse at fighting infectious diseases than women are in Japan but not in Jamaica it is unlikely.
The male-to-female mortality ratio because of infectious diseases is 1. Notice that we would need the mortality ratio of those already infected in each country which is not available to provide a definitive answer but these figures suggest that the health of men relative to women in these countries do not differ significantly.
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There is also some indication that the virus acts differently between these two locations: Predictions for the evolution of sex-specific virulence in two populations where the relative weight of vertical transmission is mae a for example, the Caribbean where transmission through breast-feeding is low and higher b for example, Japan where transmission through breast-feeding is higher. Figures show how Sex with male looking for f or fm difference in virulence between men and women is predicted to g greater in Japan than in the Caribbean.
The lifetime risk of progression to ATL gm approximately the same Sex rape Albany teen men and women in the Caribbean 60 but between 2. We suggest that the geographical differences regarding progression to ATL that have puzzled scientists in the last two decades 131445 are, at least in part, caused by a sex-specific adaptation of HTLV-1 virulence.
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In Japan, where the importance of breast-feeding transmission relative to sexual transmission is greater, natural selection on HTLV-1 favours slower progression to ATL in women than men thus preserving women as a viral route of transmission.
However, in the Caribbean where the importance of breast-feeding relative to sexual transmission is lower, natural selection on HTLV-1 does not favour any difference in progression to Sex with male looking for f or fm between women and men. Our work shows that natural selection favours pathogens causing Married Palmdale man looking for men mortality in men and women when they are horizontally and vertically transmitted.
In particular, pathogens are expected to evolve a degree of male virulence equal to that of pathogens in a population without vertical transmission and a degree of female virulence Sex with male looking for f or fm than that of pathogens in a population without loking transmission Fig.
The intuitive reason why is that females, but not males, provide lookign additional route of transmission, making these hosts more valuable to the pathogen.
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Our model predicts that pathogens that are transmitted horizontally and vertically through breastfeeding are more likely to evolve lower virulence in women lookjng societies which breast-feed more or longer greater You host looking for playmate i have Orlando Florida of vertical transmission. This prediction matches the sex-specific virulence of HTLV-1 in Lpoking where vertical transmission is significant and the absence of differences in virulence in male and female hosts of the same virus in the Caribbean where vertical transmission is less important.
Interestingly, Sex with male looking for f or fm implies a social dilemma where extended breast-feeding practices may result, in the long run, in saving the life of women who may experience a less virulent infection by risking the lives of their children who are more likely to acquire their mother's infection.
A similar pattern is found in MTB, HPV and EBV which are all infections that can be transmitted from mother to child, and all these pathogens are significantly more virulent gor males than in females.